District of Columbia
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History of Maryland
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- Allegany -- Anne Arundel -- Baltimore -- Baltimore (city) -- Calvert -- Caroline -- Carroll -- Cecil -- Charles -- Dorchester -- Frederick -- Garrett -- Harford -- Howard -- Kent -- Montgomery -- Prince George's -- Queen Anne's -- Saint Mary's -- Somerset -- Talbot -- Washington -- Wicomico -- Worcester -
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Local History Notes:
The 1854 Gazetteer of the United States by Thomas Baldwin shows:
MARYLAND, one of the thirteen original states of the American confederacy, and the most southern of the Middle States, is bounded on the N. by Pennsylvania, E. by Delaware and the Atlantic, and S., S. W., and W. by Virginia, from which it is separated by the Potomac river. It lies between 38° and 39° 44' N. lat., and between 75° 10' and 79° 20' W. lon. Maryland is very irregular in outline, occupying an extent of about 190 miles on its northern boundary, which contracts on its W. side till at its southern limits, it has scarcely half that extent, even including Chesapeake bay. Its greatest breadth, in a N. and S. direction, is about 120 miles. This state is divided by Chesapeake bay into two portions, called the Eastern and Western Shore; the two divisions, exclusive of the bay, including an area of about 9356 square miles, or 5,987,840 acres, of which 2,797,905 were improved land in 1850. The Western Shore is about double the area of the Eastern. About 60 square miles of the original territory of Maryland have been taken off by its grant of the District of Columbia to the government of the United States.
Population: Maryland was originally settled mostly by the English, but it partakes at present of much the same mixture of population that characterizes the United States generally. The number of inhabitants was 319,728 in 1790; 341,548 in 1800; 380,546 in 1810; 407,350 in 1820; 447,040 in 1830; 470,019 in 1840; 583,035 in 1850; of whom 211,495 were white males, 207,095 white females, 34,914 free colored males, 39,163 free colored females, 45,944 male slaves, and 44,424 female slaves. This population is divided into 87,384 families, occupying 81,708 dwellings. Representative population, 546,887. Of the white population, 400,594 were born in the state; 38,322 in other states of the Union; 3467 in England; 19,557 in Ireland; 1353 in Scotland and Wales; 215 in British America; 26,936 in Germany; 507 in France; 1253 in other countries, and 462 whose places of birth were unknown; making about 10 per cent. of the free population of foreign birth. There occurred, in the year ending June 1, 1850, 6467 deaths, or about 11 in every 1000 persons. In the same period, 4494 paupers, of whom 1093 were foreigners, received aid, at an expense of about $16 to each person. Of 254 deaf and dumb, 36 were free colored, and 23 slaves. Of 307 blind, 71 were free colored, and 43 slaves. Of 553 insane, 52 were free colored, and 24 slaves; and of 393 idiotic, 53 were free colored, and 72 slaves. Maryland is divided into 21 counties, viz Alleghany, Anne Arundel, Baltimore, Calvert, Caroline, Carroll, Cecil, Charles, Dorchester, Frederick, Hartford, Howard, Kent, Montgomery, Prince George, Queen Anne, St. Mary's, Somerset, Talbot, Washington, and Worcester. Capital, Annapolis.
Cities and Towns: The principal towns of Maryland are Baltimore, population in 1850, 169,054; Cumberland, 6067; Frederick, 6028; Hagerstown, 3884; Annapolis, (the capital,) 3011, and several other towns with populations varying from 1000 to 1500.
Face of the Country: The surface on both shores of Chesapeake bay is level, and the soil sandy. A range of hills enters the state where the N. boundary strikes the Susquehanna, and extends in a S. W. direction to the Potomac river, which it intersects about 10 miles above Washington City. This ridge divides the alluvial from the mountainous portion of the state. The mountainous district occupies the strip of territory (not more than 4 miles wide in its narrowest part) in the N. W. of the state, between the Pennsylvania line and the Potomac river. This section is crossed by different ridges of the Alleghany mountains, bearing different local names, such as South-east mountain, Sugar Loaf, Catoctin, Blue Ridge, Kittatinny, Rugged mountain, and Will's mountain. None of these are of any great elevation. A belt of primary formation, composed of gneiss, mica slate, serpentine, hornblende, limestone, clay slate, &c., forms the mountainous part of this district. The N. W. part of this state is rich in bituminous coal and iron. The trade in this coal has received a double impetus recently by the completion of the Baltimore and Ohio railroad, and from the increased demand for the use of steam vessels at New York. The sales of coal increased from 4964 tons, in 1843, to 162,500 in 1851. In the first six months of 1853 there were sent to market 205,169 tons. The estimated sales for 1852 were 450,000 tons. The extent of its iron resources will be best shown by the simple statement of the fact that there were 31 furnaces in Maryland in 1851-2, smelting 70,500 tons of iron. Copper mining is beginning to attract much attention in this state, by the recent discovery of localities rich in that mineral. The copper mines in Frederick county are also rich in argentiferous lead ore. Cobalt, too, is sometimes found, in connection with the copper, in abundance. The capital engaged in copper mining in 1850 was only $13,200. The other minerals are alum, porcelain clay, lime, chrome, manganese, magnesia, burytea, marble, maria, ochres, hones, and even gold.
Rivers and Bays: The Chesapeake bay extends northward about 120 miles within this state, with a breadth varying from 7 to 20 miles. It is navigable for large vessels throughout its whole extent, and receives the large and navigable river Potomac at the S. extremity of the state, besides the Patuxent and Patapsco from the W., the Susquehanna from the N., and the Elk, Chester, Choptank, Nanticoke, and Pocomoke from the E. All these rivers are more or less navigable for small ocean craft, and the Potomac for the largest class vessels to Alexandria. The bay abounds with fine fish, oysters, and terrapins. The waters of the bay back up in numerous inlets, and bring the means of cheap and easy transport almost to the very doors of the farmer, beside furnishing him with a cheap supply of a great variety of the finest fish. There are a number of islands in Chesapeake bay, the principal of which are Kent island, opposite the city of Annapolis, 12 miles long, and Tangier island, farther south.
Objects of Interest to Tourists: Maryland shares with Virginia the wild scenery at Harper's Ferry, where the Potomac bursts through the Blue Ridge, and which Mr. Jefferson declared worth a voyage across the Atlantic to witness. The falls of the Potomac, about 14 miles above Georgetown, though of no great perpendicular height, are represented as being one of the most interesting cataracts in the United States. The descent is about 80 feet in 1 1/2 miles, from 30 to 40 feet of which are in one perpendicular pitch. It is not, however, the fall of water that constitutes the whole interest of the scene, which is very much heightened by the wild perpendicular cliffs that shut in the river on the Virginia side.
Climate, Soil, and Productions: Maryland occupies a position about equally removed from the extremes of the North and South as to temperature. Her contiguity to the ocean, and the fact of the Chesapeake bay permeating her midst, give her the advantage of whatever mitigating effects large bodies of water may exert on climate. On the other hand, the lowlands on the borders of the Chesapeake bay are subject to exhalations of miasmatic matter, which give rise to bilious fevers and fevers with ague in the autumn.
The soil of the Eastern Shore, and some of the counties on the Western, is a mixture of sand and clay, which, though not of the most fertile character, is easily improved, and by the aid of manure, which it possesses at hand in its extensive beds of marl, well repays cultivation. Some of the valleys of the middle and northern counties are highly fertile. Maryland has formerly suffered from an injudicious system of agriculture, of constant cropping with but little manuring. This system is, however, happily passing away: emigrants from the North are taking up the lands worn out by the system referred to, and by means of guano, bone-dust, marl, and other manures, are restoring the land to more than its pristine fertility. The soil receives improvement easily, is readily cultivated, and the farmers emigrating from the rougher soil of the North find their labors here much diminished. Maryland ranks third of the states of the Union in the absolute amount of tobacco produced, and if we regard population, the second. The other great staples are wheat and Indian corn; besides which, large quantities of oats, rye, buckwheat, flax, hay, grass-seeds, Irish and sweet potatoes, peas, beans, fruits, butter, beeswax, honey, and wool, and some barley, wine, cheese, hops, hemp, silk, maple sugar, and molasses are produced. According to the census of 1850, there were in Maryland 21,860 farms, occupying 2,797,905 acres of improved land, (about 130 acres to each farm,) producing 4,494,680 bushels of wheat; 226,014 of rye; 11,104,631 of Indian corn; 2,242,151 of oats; 12,816 of peas and beans; 764,939 of Irish potatoes; 208,993 of sweet potatoes; 103,671 of buckwheat; 17,778 of grass-seeds; 2446 of flax-seed; 21,407,497 pounds of tobacco; 480,226 of wool; 3,806,160 of butter; 157,956 tons of hay; 35,686 pounds of flax; 47,740 of maple sugar; 74,802 of beeswax and honey; live stock valued at $7,997,634; orchard products, $164,051; market products, $200,869; and slaughtered animals, $1,954,800.
Forest Trees: Several varieties of oak, pine, chestnut, cedar, poplar, maple, fir, hickory, ash, beech, gum, birch, persimmon, sycamore, walnut, cypress, sassafras, locust, dogwood, magnolia, holly, elm, and cherry are the principal woods.
Manufactures: Maryland has a large amount of capital invested in a great variety of manufactures. In 1850 there were 3863 establishments, each producing $500 and upwards annually; of these, 24 were cotton factories, employing $2,236,000 capital, and 1008 male and 2014 female hands, consuming raw material worth $1,165,579, and producing 27,883,923 yards of stuffs, and 46,000 pounds of yarn, valued at $2,120,504; 38 woollen factories, employing $244,000 capital, and 262 male and 100 female hands, consuming raw material worth $165,568, and producing 373,100 yards of stuffs, valued at $295,140; 51 furnaces, forges, &c., employ$2,559,750 capital, and 2599 male hands, consuming raw material worth $1,259,426, and producing 59,885 tons of castings, pig iron, &c., valued at $2,512,831; $247,100 were invested in the manufacture of malt and spirituous liquors, consuming 76,900 bushels of barley; 166,100 of Indian corn; 54,300 of rye; 460 of oats, and 25 tons of hops, employing 126 hands, and producing 25,380 barrels of ale, and 787,400 gallons of whiskey, wine, &c.; and 116 tanneries, employing $628,900 capital, consuming $725,612 worth of raw material, and producing leather valued at $1,103,139. Homemade manufactures, valued at $111,828, were fabricated.
Internal Improvements: Maryland was among the earliest of the United States to enter with zeal upon a system of internal improvements; and it is believed that a portion of the Baltimore and Ohio railroad was the first in America used for the purposes of ordinary travel and transport of goods. This state, as well as Pennsylvania, displayed more enterprise than caution in projecting her earlier works of intercommunication, and involved herself in a heavy debt, particularly for the construction of the Chesapeake and Ohio canal, for which, up to the year 1839, she had expended upwards of $7,000,000, and which has never been completed beyond Cumberland, (200 miles,) nor yielded a remunerating income in tolls. Maryland has loaned and expended more than $15,000,000 in aid of railroads and canals, which are now likely to become richly remunerative. She has already a sinking fund of $2,770,302, which will probably be multiplied rapidly by the increased productiveness of the completed works. Discoveries of new veins of coal in the Cumberland coal region, for which there is now a great demand for steamships and other purposes, together with the increased production of iron from the same region, cannot fail to add greatly to the income from the canal. In January, 1853, there were in Maryland 521 miles of railroad in operation. These roads connect Baltimore with Wheeling, and various intermediate places, with Washington City, with Wilmington, in Delaware, with Harrisburg, with Philadelphia, and with Annapolis, the state capital. The Chesapeake and Delaware canal opens an inland navigation to Philadelphia, and the Susquehanna canal gives Baltimore a share in the trade of the interior of Pennsylvania, bringing to her the lumber of southern New York. Hagerstown, in Maryland, is also connected with Chambersburg, and with Carlisle and Harrisburg, in Pennsylvania.
Commerce: Maryland possesses great facilities both for foreign and internal commerce, having the Chesapeake bay, navigable for the largest vessels, extending through the heart of her territory, and her south-western shore washed by the Potomac and the Susquehanna, floating a portion of the products of southern New York and the interior of Pennsylvania to her commercial metropolis. Communicating with the great West by the Baltimore and Ohio railway, and the Chesapeake and Ohio canal; with Pennsylvania, and the north-east by the Chesapeake and Delaware canal; and by several railroads, Maryland has every prospect of increasing her trade in a rapid ratio. The Cumberland coal, now much in demand for steamers, will add greatly to her coasting tonnage. The prime articles of foreign export are flour, wheat, pork, and tobacco. The imports of Maryland for the year 1851-52 amounted to $6,719,986, and her exports to $6,667,861; tonnage entered, 128,021; cleared, 128,243; owned in the state, 206,243 4/9 9/5; and number of vessels built, 119, with a tonnage of 18,158 8/9 0/5. Of the vessels built, 7 were steamers.
Education. In 1852 there were in Maryland 5 colleges, with an aggregate attendance of 408 students, and 34,892 volumes in their libraries, and 2 medical schools with 125 students: See Table of Colleges, APPENDIX. Of 104,488 children in the state in 1850, only 34,467 were in the schools, for which there was annually expended $225,260. The school fund in 1852 was $148,509. There were 8 school libraries, with 6335 volumes. In Baltimore are a number of educational institutions of a public character, among which are the Central High School, the Eastern Female High School, and the Western Female High School, the first of which had 230, the second 136, and the third 134 pupils in 1852. There were also 11 male, and a like number of female grammar schools; 4 male, and 22 female primary schools; with an aggregate of 9081 pupils. All these schools were maintained at an expense of $32,583.73, including repairs of buildings, &c.
Religious Denominations: Of the 909 churches in Maryland in 1850, the different sects of Baptists owned 48; the Episcopalians, 133; Friends, 26; German Reformed, 22; Lutherans, 42; Methodists, 479; Moravians, 12; Presbyterians, 57; Roman Catholics, 65, and Union Church, 10. The remaining churches belonged to the Jews, Mennonites, Tunkers, Unitarians, and Universalists, giving one church to every 641 persons. Value of church property, $3,947,884.
Public Institutions: The state penitentiary is located at Baltimore, which received a state appropriation in 1851 of $30,000. The number of convicts in this institution in December, 1852, was 305, of whom 54 were minors; but for the latter class a place of correction rather than punishment is about to be supplied, in a house of refuge, now in course of construction, which will embrace the improvements suggested by institutions established in other states. The Maryland hospital for the insane, at Baltimore, had 164 patients under care in the year 1852, of whom 101 were private patients, and 63 public. Of these, 34 were admitted during the year, 10 recovered, 18 were discharged, 3 improved, 15 unimproved, and 6 died. The expenditures for the year were $25,647.06. From the establishment of this institution, in the early part of the present century, up to this time, (1853,) it hits received from the state $111,000, and from other sources $98,000. A lot has been purchased on which to erect a new building, more suited to the improved modes of treatment.
Government, Finances, Banks, &c: The governor of Maryland is elected by the people for four years, and has a salary of $3600 per annum, with the use of a furnished house. The senate consists of 22 members, elected for four, and the house of representatives of 74, elected for two years, both by the people. The state is divided into three districts, from which the governor must be chosen in rotation. After 1854, the sessions of the legislature are to be biennial. The judiciary consists: 1. Of a court of appeals, composed of four judges, elected from districts by popular vote for ten years, but each judge must retire at the age of 70. The governor and senate designate one of the four as chief justice. 2. Of eight circuit courts, presided over by as many judges, each elected from a separate district, by popular vote, for ten years. The fifth circuit comprises the city of Baltimore, which has three courts, viz. a superior court, court of common pleas, and a criminal court. The judge of the latter is elected for six years. 3. Of an orphans' court in each county, and in the city of Baltimore, composed of three persons as judges, elected by popular vote for four years. Registers, sheriffs, constables, justices of the peace, and prosecuting attorneys are all elected by the people, for periods varying from two to six years. The judges of the court of appeals, and the Baltimore city courts, receive salaries of $2500, and the circuit judges $2000 per annum. The office of attorney-general has been abolished by the new constitution. No debt is to be contracted by the state for a greater sum than $100,000, or for a longer period than 15 years. Every free white male citizen of the United States, 21 years of age, resident in the state one year, and in the county, town, or city where he offers to vote, for six months next preceding the election, may vote. Maryland is entitled to 6 members in the national house of representatives, and to eight electoral votes for president of the United States. The assessed value of property in 1850 was $208,563,568. The public debt, in January, 1853, $15,136,792, including a loan of $3,200,000 to the Baltimore and Ohio railroad, and a sinking fund of $2,770,302; independent of these, it is reduced to $9,166,490. School fund in 1852, $148,509; amount of productive property, $11,212,617; and, of at present unproductive property, $16,319,138; ordinary expenses, exclusive of debt and schools, $170,000. The number of banking institutions in January, 1852, was 26, with an aggregate capital of $9,287,395, a circulation of $3,700,000, and $3,000,000 in coin; and partial returns for January, 1853, give $8,064,930 capital, $4,254,412.47 circulation, and $2,838,071.09 in coin.
History: Maryland derived its name from Henrietta Maria, queen of Charles I., who granted to Lord Baltimore a charter for the territory now occupied by the present State of Maryland. Leonard Calvert, brother of Lord Baltimore, led the first colony, which settled at St. Mary's in 1634. In 1649, to her lasting honor, Maryland passed an act granting religious toleration to all sects and creeds. In 1660, when Philip Calvert assumed the government, the colony had 12,000 inhabitants; eleven years afterwards they had increased to 20,000. In 1688, William III assumed the government; which, however, was restored to the family 27 years later. In 1694 and 1695, a disease prevailed among the stock, carrying off about 90,000 cattle and hogs. In 1753, the colony had 154,188 inhabitants. No conspicuous engagement took place in Maryland during the Revolutionary contest, but some of the sessions of the continental Congress were held at Annapolis, and there Washington resigned his command at the close of the war. During the war of 1812, however, her territory was twice invaded by the British, who were gallantly repulsed from North Point, near Baltimore, September 13th, 1814; although they had gained a temporary triumph a few weeks before, at Bladensburg, which they sullied by the burning of the capitol and national library at Washington. The constitution of Maryland underwent a radical change at the Revolution, and has been twice remodelled since, viz. in 1833 and 1851.
John Francis Mercer Biography
John Francis Mercer, governor of Maryland, was born at Marlborough, Stafford county, Va., May 17, 1759; son of John and Ann (Roy) Mercer. He was graduated at the College of William and Mary in 1775, entered the Revolutionary army as lieutenant in the 3d Virginia regiment, Feb. 26, 1776, and was wounded at the battle of the Brandywine, Sept. 11, 1777. He was promoted captain in the 3d Virginia regiment in September, 1777, to rank from June 27, 1777, and was aide-de-camp to Gan. Charles Lee, 1778-79. After the battle of Monmouth he resigned from the army through his sympathy for General Lee. He returned to Virginia where he recruited and equipped at his own expense a troop of cavalry of which he was commisioned lieutenant colonel in October, 1780. He joined Gen. Robert Lawson's brigade and served at Guilford, N.C. When Lawson's brigade disbanded, he attached his command to Lafayette's army and served until after the surrender at Yorktown. He studied law directed by Thomas Jefferson, resided on his estate "Marlboro'" on the Potomac, and was a delegate from Virginia to the Continental congress, 1782-85. He removed to his wife's estate "Cedar Park," West River, Arundel county, Md., in 1785, and was a delegate from Maryland to the convention that framed the Federal constitution in 1787, but with George Mason of Virginia, Luther Martin of Maryland, and others, he refused to sign the instrument as framed on account of its consolidation tendencies. He was a reproductive in the Maryland legislature for several sessions; a represenative in the 2d congress to fill the unexpired term of William Pinknay, resigned, and to the 3d congress, his service in congress extending from Feb. 6, 1792, to April 13, 1794, when he resigned. He was elected governor of Maryland, Nov. 9, 1801, by the Democratic party and served one year, after which he was again a representative in the state legislature. He was married, Feb. 3, 1785, to Sophia, daughter of Richard and Margaret (Caile) Sprigg, of West River, Md. Their daughter, Margaret (1791-1846), known as the "Hannah More of America," freed the slaves she inherited, became a teacher, and converted "Cedar Park" into a school for girls which she conducted for over ten years, then removed to Franklin, near Baltimore, and afterward to Belmont, near Leesburg, Va., where she died. His grandson, William Roy Mercer, son of John, was living in Doylestown, Pa., in 1902. Governor Mercer died in Philadelphia, Pa., while under medical treatment, Aug. 30, 1821.
From: Twentieth Century Biographical Dictionary of Notable Americans,
Johnson, Rossiter, editor
Thomas Holliday Hicks Biographical Sketch
Thomas Holliday Hicks, governor of Maryland, was born in Dorchester county, Md., Sept. 2, 1798. His father was a farmer, and he was brought up to work on the farm and attend the school of the neighborhood. He entered public life as town constable, and was promoted to the office of county sheriff. He was a state representative, 1836-37; register of wills, 1838; a member of the state constitutional convention, 1849; state representative, 1848-58, and governor of the state, 1858-62, he opposed secession in 1861, and used the power of his office to prevent the assembling of the state legislature, intent on seceding. He also exercised his authority in suppressing the riot caused by the passage of the Massachusetts troops through Baltimore, April 19, 1861. On the death of Senator James A. Pearce, Dec. 20, 1862, Ex-Governor Hicks was appointed by Governor Bradford to the vacancy in the U.S. senate and on the meeting of the legislature be was elected for the term expiring March 3, 1867. He was a member of the committees on claims and naval affairs. He died in Washington, D.C., Feb. 13, 1865.
From: Twentieth Century Biographical Dictionary of Notable Americans,
Johnson, Rossiter, editor
A Short Biography of George Plater
George Plater, governor of Maryland, was born near Leonardtown, St. Mary's county, Md., Nov. 8, 1735; son of Col. George and Rebecca (Addison) Bowles Plater. His father was a member of the state council for many years; naval officer of the Patuxent, and secretary of the province. He was graduated from the College of William and Mary in 1753, was admitted to the bar and became prominent in the pre-revolutionary discussions. He was twice married, first, to Hannah, daughter of the Hon. Richard Lee, who died in 1763, and secondly, July 19, 1764, to Elizabeth, daughter of John and Ann (Frisby) Rousby. He was a member of the convention at Annapolis, May 8, 1776, which requested Governor Eden to relinquish his office; was made a member of the council of safety, May 26, 1776; of the Annapolis convention of August 14, 1776, and of the committee "to prepare a declaration and charter of rights and a form of government for Maryland," Aug. 17, 1776. He was a delegate to the Continental congress, 1778-81, was president of the state convention that voted to adopt the Federal constitution, 1788. He was governor of Maryland, 1781-94, succeeding John Eager Howard. During his administration the District of Columbia was ceded for the national seat of government. He was succeeded by John Hoskins Stone. He died in Annapolis, Md., Feb. 10, 1792.
From: Twentieth Century Biographical Dictionary of Notable Americans,
Johnson, Rossiter, editor
Enoch Louis Lowe Biography
Enoch Louis Lowe, governor of Maryland, was born in Frederick county, Md., Aug. 10, 1820; son of Lieut. Bradley S.A., and Adelaide Bellumeau (de la Vincendi?re) Lowe; grandson of Lloyd M. and Rebecca (Maccubbin) Lowe, and great-grandson of Michael and Ann (Magruder) Lowe. His ancestors settled in Maryland about 1675. He attended St. John's school in Frederick, Md., the Roman Catholic college near Dublin, Ireland, and a school at Stonyhurst, Lancashire, England, until 1839. He was admitted to the Maryland bar in 1842, and was a Democratic delegate to the Maryland legislature in 1845. He was married June 1, 1845, to Esther Winder, daughter of Col. James and Anne Maria (Stuart) Polk, of Maryland. He was governor of Maryland, 1851-53, and during his tenure of office introduced many changes in the election laws and other reforms. He was appointed U.S. minister to China in 1857 by President Buchanan, but declined the office. He was a presidential elector in 1861, voting for Breckinridge and Lane. He removed to Brooklyn, N.Y., in 1866, and practised law in that city until his death, which occurred in Brooklyn, N.Y., Aug. 23, 1892.
From: Twentieth Century Biographical Dictionary of Notable Americans,
Johnson, Rossiter, editor
ADDITIONAL BIOGRAPHIES AVAILABLE:
Joshua Clayton Biography
A Biography of Arthur Pue Gorman
Biography of Elihu Emory Jackson
Biographical Sketch of Thomas Sim Lee
Biography of Samuel Ogle
Local History and Genealogy Links:
Tree: white oak
Bird: Baltimore oriole
Flower: black-eyed Susan
Nickname: Free State, Old Line State
Motto: Fatti Maschii, Parole Femine (Manly Deeds, Womanly Words)
Area (sq. mi.): 10,577
Admitted: 28 Apr 1788