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History of Indiana
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Local History Notes:
The 1854 Gazetteer of the United States by Thomas Baldwin shows:
INDIANA, one of the Western States, and a portion of the Great Mississippi Valley, is bounded on the N. by Lake Michigan and the State of Michigan, E. by Ohio, S. by Kentucky, from which it is separated by the Ohio river, and W. by Illinois, from which it is partly separated by the Wabash river. It lies between 37° 45' and 41° 52' N. lat., being about 275 miles in its greatest length from N. to S., and about 135 miles in width, forming nearly a parallelogram, and including 33,809 square miles, or 21,637,760 acres, only 5,045,453 of which are improved, leaving three-fourths of this fertile. state uncultivated. When we take into consideration that the million of inhabitants who possess the cultivated portion are far from densely settled, we arrive at conclusions foreshadowing the immense population that must one day occupy the Great Mississippi Valley.
Population: There were in Indiana, 4875 inhabitants in 1800; 24,520 in 1810; 147,178 in 1820; 343,031 in 1830; 685,866 in 1840, and 988,393 in 1850; of whom 506,400 were white males, 471,205 white females; 5472 colored males, and 5316 colored females. There were also in 1850, 171,564 families, inhabiting 170,178 dwellings. Of the entire population, 541,078 were born in the state, 390,313 in other states of the Union, 5550 in England, 12,787 in Ireland, 1510 in Scotland and Wales, 1878 in British America, 28,584 in Germany, 2279 in France, 1838 in other countries, and 2598 whose places of birth were unknown. In the year ending June 1st, 1850, there occurred 12,728 deaths, or about 13 in every thousand persons; and in the same period, 1182 paupers received aid, of whom 322 were foreigners, at an expense of nearly $50 to the individual. There were at the same time, 349 blind, of whom 9 were colored; 618 deaf and dumb, of whom 4 were colored; 579 insane, of whom 10 ware colored, and 919 idiots, of whom 13 were colored persons.
Counties: Indiana is divided into 91 counties, viz. Adams, Alien, Bartholomew, Benten, Blackford, Boone, Brown, Carroll, Case, Clark, Clay, Clinton, Crawford, Daviess, Dearborn, Decatur, De Kalb, Delaware, Du Bois, Elkhart, Fayette, Floyd, Fountain, Franklin, Fulton, Gibson, Grant, Greene, Hamilton, Hancock, Harrison, Hendricks, Henry, Howard, Huntington, Jackson, Jasper, Jay, Jefferson, Jennings, Johnson, Knox, Kosciusco, La Grange, Lake, Laporte, Lawrence, Madison, Marion, Marshall, Martin, Miami, Monroe, Montgomery, Morgan, Noble, Ohio, Orange, Owen, Parke, Perry, Pike, Porter, Posey, Pulaski, Putnam, Randolph, Ripley, Rush, Scott, Shelby, Spencer, Stark, Steuben, St. Joseph, Sullivan, Switzerland, Tippecanoe, Tipton, Union, Vanderburgh, Vermilion, Vigo, Wabash, Warren, Warwick, Washington, Wayne, Wells, White, and Whitley. Capital, Indianapolis. Cities and Towns: New Albany is the largest town, population (in 1850) 8181; the other principal towns are Madison, population, 8005; Indianapolis, 8090; Fort Wayne, about 4000; Terre Haute, about 4000; Lafayette, 6129; Evansville, 3633; besides a number of other towns between 1000 and 2000 each.
Face of the Country: Indiana has no mountains or great elevations, but portions S. of the White river are somewhat hilly and rugged. A low ridge from Kentucky extends in a N. W. direction across the Ohio, White, and Wabash rivers, causing rapids in each. North of the White and Wabash rivers, (forming much the larger part of the state,) the country is generally level, or slightly undulating. Most of the rivers have rich alluvial bottoms of a few miles in width. A range of hills runs along the Ohio, sometimes approaching and at others receding from the river, forming in the S. W. an exceedingly broken and rocky country. In the N. W. part is some land heavily timbered with walnut, beech, maple, buckeye,&c.,with a considerable portion of the richest prairie land. Immediately bordering on Lake Michigan are some sandhills about 200 feet in height, behind which is a region covered with pine. The N. E. part of Indiana is also heavily timbered, interspersed with prairie, barrens, and marsh lands. The most of the streams empty into the Ohio, showing a general inclination of the surface in that direction.
Minerals: Indiana has beds of coal within her limits, estimated to cover 7700 square miles, capable of yielding 50,000,000 bushels to the square mile. One coal deposits commences near the Ohio, in Perry county, and extends N. W. about 150 miles, into Vermilion county, Besides coal, Indiana contains iron, some copper, lime, marble, freestone, gypsum, and grindstones, In 1850 about $172,000 were invested in forges, furnaces, &c., for the working of iron.
Rivers, Lakes, &c: Lake Michigan borders on the N. W. portion of Indiana for about 40 miles, and opens to it the trade of the great lakes. There are a number of small lakes in the N. part of the state. The Ohio forms the entire southern boundary of Indiana, and gives it access to the commerce of the Ohio and Mississippi valleys. The Wabash is the largest river that has its course mainly within the state, of whose; surface, with its branches, it drains three-fourths. It rises in the W. of Ohio, and flowing N. W. and then S. W. across the state, meets the boundary of Illinois, which it follows for more than 100 miles, till it discharges its waters into the Ohio, after a total course of about 500 miles, (including its windings,) 400 of which may be navigated by steamboats at high water. At low water its channel is obstructed by bars and ledges of rocks just above the mouth of the White river, its principal tributary. The latter rises in two branches in the eastern part of the state, flow S. W. and unite about 30 miles from the Wabash. The course of the largest branch (the W. fork) is about 200 miles. It is navigable in the season of floods to Indianapolis, 140 miles from its mouth. The Maumee is formed by the St. Joseph's and St. Mary's, in the N. E. part of Indiana, and passes off into Ohio. The Kankakee, one of the sources of the Illinois, drains the N. W. portion of the state. The upper St. Joseph's makes a bend into Indiana from Michigan, to which, after a course of about 30 miles, it returns. Some branches of the Ohio and Wabash form the other principal streams.
Objects of Interest to Tourists: There are a number of caves in this state. Wyandotte Cave, in Crawford county, 11 miles from Corydon, is said to rival Mammoth Cave, in Kentucky, in extent and interest. Previous to 1850, the cave had been explored for 3 miles. In that year new chambers and galleries were discovered, mere extensive than the old, and abounding in stalactites and other calcareous concretions, some of great size and splendor. Epsom Salts Cave, on the Big Blue river, is in the side of a hill 400 feet high. About 2500 yards from the entrance is a white column, 15 feet in diameter, 30 in height, regularly fluted, and surrounded by smaller and similar columns. The earth of the floor yields Epsom salts, nitre, aluminous earth, and gypsum. There is within, a rude painting of an Indian on the rock. There are a number of mounds scattered over the state, similar to those described in Ohio.
Climate, Soil, and Productions: The climate of Indiana partakes of the general character of the other Western States, N. of the Ohio, that is to say, somewhat milder than on the Atlantic coasts, but subject to sudden changes. The cold of winter is severe, but of comparatively short duration; the snow does not generally fall to a great depth or lie very long; though there is considerable difference in this respect between the northern and southern parts of the state. The earlier fruits blossom in March, but are liable to be injured by frosts. The soil is generally good, and much of it highly fertile. The richest lands are found in the river bottoms, where the soil is very deep. This is especially the ease in the valleys of the Wabash and its tributaries above Tetra Haute, and in parts of the Ohio valley. The country between the rivers is somewhat elevated, and not so luxuriantly fertile as on the river bottoms, but amply repays the labors of the husbandman; indeed there is very little of this state uncultivable; even its wet and marshy lands will no doubt, at some future day, when the density of population and cheapness of labor may warrant it, become as productive as most of the other lands in the state. Indiana ranks fourth of the states of the Union in the absolute amount of Indian corn raised, and third as respects population. It also produces large quantities of wheat, oats, with Irish potatoes, fruit, butter, and live stock, besides considerable rye, barley, buckwheat, sweet potatoes, tobacco, wool, peas, beans, cheese, grass-seeds, flux, hops, maple sugar, molasses, beeswax and honey, and some wine, hemp, and silk. In 1850 there were in Indiana 98,396 forms, occupying 5,046,543 acres of improved land, (averaging about 50 acres to each plantation,) and producing 6,214,458 bushels of wheat; 52,964,363 of Indian corn; 5,655,014 of oats; 78,792 of rye; 35,773 of peas and beans; 2,083,337 of Irish potatoes; 201,711 of sweet potatoes; 45,483 of barley; 149,740 of buckwheat; 30,280 of grass-seeds; 1,054,620 pounds of tobacco; 2,610,287 of wool; 12,781,535 of batter; 624,564 of cheese; 403,230 tans of buy; 92,796 pounds of hops; 584,469 of flax; 2,921,642 of maple sugar, (fourth in amount of the United States;) 935,329 of beeswax and honey; 14,055 gallons of wine; 180,325 of molasses; live stock valued at $22,478,555; orchard products at $324,940; market products at $72,864; and slaughtered animals at $6,567,935.
Forest Trees: Indigenous to Indiana, are various species of oaks, popular, ash, walnut, hickory, elm, cherry, sugar-maple, buckeye, beech, and some sassafras, lime, locust, sycamore, cottonwood, hackberry, and mulberry in the bottom lands. The fruits common to the latitude thrive in Indiana.
Manufactures: Though not yet largely engaged in manufacturing industry, Indiana has every facility, in the abundance of her water-power and the cheapness of her coal, for becoming a manufacturing state, when it may become advantageous for her so to do. There were in 1850, in this state, 4326 manufacturing establishments, each producing $500 and upwards annually, of which two were cotton mills, employing $43,000 capital, and 38 male, and 57 female hands consuming raw material, valued at $28,220, and producing stuffs and yarns worth $44,200; 83 woollen mills, employing $171,545, and 189 male and 57 female hands, Consuming raw material worth $120,486, and producing 235,500 yards of stuffs, and 104,000 pounds of yarn, valued at $205,802; 19 furnaces, forges, &c., employing $171,900 capital, and, 253 male hands, consuming raw material worth $95,743, and producing 3782 tons all cast, wrought, and pig iron, valued at $219,190; 358 tanneries, employing $514,897 capital, consuming raw material worth $405,838, and producing leather valued at $714,813; and $334,950 invested in the manufacture of malt liquors, whisky, wine. &e., consuming 118,150 bushels of barley, 1,417,900 of Indian corn, 48,709 of rye, 1000 of oats, and 18 tons of hops, and employing 287 hands, and producing 11,005 barrels of beer, ale, &c., and 4,639,900 gallons of whisky, wine, &c. Homemade manufactures were produced valued at $1,631,039.
Internal Improvements: Indiana is among the leading states of the Great Mississippi Valley in works of internal improvement. In January, 1853, there were within her limits 755 miles of railroad completed, and 979 in course of construction; and so rapid is her progress in this respect, that any correct account of them one year would be antedated the next. One line passes through the middle of the state, uniting Terre Haute, on its western border, with Columbus, in Ohio, and passing through Indianapolis. Branching off from the latter place is another railroad, uniting the capital with Cleveland, Ohio. The Southern Michigan, and Northern Indiana, connecting Monroe, in Michigan, and Cleveland, and various other points in Ohio, and even New York city and Philadelphia with Chicago, has about 180 miles of its track in the N. W. of Indiana. Other lines connect the capital, directly or indirectly, with Madison, with Lafayette, with Muncie Town, with Rushville, Shelbyville, and Knightstown. There are some other roads given in the Appendix. The projected and incomplete railroads are the Evansville and Terre Haute, (27 miles finished,) Fort Wayne and Muncie, Indianapolis and Lawrenceburg, (63 miles finished,) Indianapolis and Peru, (30 miles finished,) Junction, New Albany and Salem, (83 miles finished,) Ohio and Mississippi, and Richmond and Logansport. The Wabash and Erie canal, connecting the Maumee river at Toledo with Terre Haute, is 340 miles long, and has much the greater part of its course in Indiana. The receipts from it in 1852 were $460,452; expenditures, $409,621. Another canal, 68 miles long, unites Lawrenceburg, on the Ohio, with Cambridge City, in the interior: See Table of Railroads and Canals, APPENDIX.
Commerce: Indiana has no foreign commerce, but an active lake and river trade with New Orleans and the various points of the Mississippi and Ohio valleys, by the rivers of the same name, and with New York by the lakes, though for the most part in vessels owned in other states. The report of the secretary of the treasury of the United States, gives no tonnage nor any vessels built to Indiana. The great objects of export are cattle, hogs, and other live stock, pork, beef, lard, Indian corn, wheat, and wool.
Education: Indiana hue a school funds derived from several sources, which Governor Wright, in his message of December, 1851, estimates at $4,664,279, which is constantly augmenting, from fines, forfeitures, and the profits of the sinking fund. The receipts from the university fund for 1852 were $15,528; and from the common school fund, $73,839. There were expended for the Indiana University in the same year, $16,361. The constitution provides for the election by the people of a superintendent of public schools, to hold office for two years. The number of children in the schools in 1851 was 225,318, or nearly one-fourth of the inhabitants. There were in 1852 four colleges in Indiana, with an aggregate of 421 students, and 20,800 volumes in their libraries; one theological school, one medical school, with 50 students, and one law school, with 29 students: See Table of Colleges, APPENDIX.
Religious Denominations: of the 1947 churches in Indiana, in 1850, the different sects of Baptists owned 412; the Christian Church, 182; the Episcopalians, 24; the Free Church, 10; the Friends, 85; the Lutherans, 60; the Methodists, 745; the Moravians, 53; the Presbyterians, 267; the Roman Catholics, 63, and the Universalists, 15. The rest belonged to the Benevolent Church, the Congregationalists, the Dutch Reformed, the German Reformed, the New Lights, the Seceders, Tankers, Union Church, and the Unitarians; giving one church to every 507 persons. Value of church property, $1,512,485.
Public Institutions: Indiana stands among the first of the Western States in provision for the unfortunate. There are at Indianapolis asylums for the deaf and dumb, blind, and insane; and the constitution directs the erection of houses of refuge for the reformation of juvenile criminals. In 1851 there were 172 pupils in the deaf and dumb, and 52 in the blind asylum. In the same year, the insane hospital had 187 patients, 52 of whom it discharged cured. This institution was opened in 1848. All the deaf and dumb between the ages of 10 and 30, and all blind children of the state may, if they choose, receive a gratuitous education. The different benevolent institutions received from the state, in 1852, appropriations amounting to $105,050.21. There were 16 public libraries in Indiana in 1850, with an aggregate of 40,000 volumes.
Government: The governor and lieutenant-governor are both elected by the people for four years. The former, who receives $1300 per annum, can only be elected once in any period of eight years. The latter is ex-officio president of the senate, and receives $3 per day during the sessions of the legislature. The senate consists of 50, and the house of representatives of 100 members, both elected by the people; the former for four, and the latter for two years. The secretary of state, auditor, and treasurer, are each chosen by the people for two years. The auditor is also superintendent of public schools. The judiciary consists of a supreme court, composed of not less than three or more than five judges, elected by the people for six years; and of thirteen circuit courts, presided over by judges elected by the people of each district, for six years. The judges of the supreme court receive $1300 per annum. Justices of the peace are chosen by the people of each township for four years. Any voter of good moral character may practise law, and any white male of 21 years of age, born in the United States, or any foreigner, resident in the United States one year, and who has declared his intention, according to law, of becoming a citizen, may vote, after six months residence in the state. Indiana is entitled to 11 members in the national house of representatives, and to 13 electoral votes for president of the United States.
Banks, Finances: The state debt, principal and interest, in 1847, was $14,374,640; but by an act of the legislature of that year, the bondholders took the state's interest in the Wabash and Erie canal, which they were to finish for half this debt, while the state should issue new certificates for the other half. In August, 1850, the state liabilities were $6,775,522.50. In January, 1852, there were 14 banks, with an aggregate capital of $2,082,151, a circulation of $3,680,000, and $1,300,000 in coin. The general banking law prevails in this state. The assessed value of property in 1850 was $152,870,339; the public debt, $6,907,477. In 1852 the expenses, exclusive of debt and schools, benevolent institutions, &c., were $108,076. Receipts for 1852, including arrearages of former years, $1,464,325.06, and expenditure, $1,061,605.58.
History: Indiana was settled in the early part of the eighteenth century by the French, who remained here, without much accession to their numbers, till long after the close of the American Revolution. Like other French settlements, they were nearly stationary, as far as regarded increase from without, until the arrival of the Americans among them; enjoying life with the characteristic cheerfulness of their nation, and mingling with the neighboring savages, not only on terms of amity, but sometimes forming matrimonial alliances with them. In 1800, Indiana became, in conjunction with Illinois, a territorial government, and in 1816, an independent member of the confederacy. In 1811, the savages of the Shawnee tribe, led on by their prophet, and incited, it is said, by the British, who put arms into their hands, attacked the American settlements, and committed great depredations. General Harrison being sent against them, routed them completely at Tippecanoe, but with the loss of 200 of his own troops.
The Biography of Alvin Peterson Hovey
Alvin Peterson Hovey, governor of Indiana, was born in Posey county, Ind., Sept. 6, 1821; son of Abiel and Prances (Peterson) Hovey; grandson of the Rev. Samuel and Abigail (Cleveland) Hovey; and a descendant of Samuel and Elizabeth (Perkins) Hovey, who resided in Windham, Conn., in 1743. His parents removed from Vermont to Indiana, where he was a bricklayer and gained his education without attending school. He began teaching school when nineteen years old and was admitted to the bar in 1843. He was a delegate to the state constitutional convention of 1850; judge of the third judicial circuit, 1851-54; judge of the state supreme court, 1854-56; president of the Democratic state convention, 1855, and U.S. district attorney for Indiana, 1856-58. He was defeated in 1858 for representative in the 36th congress. He was colonel of the 24th Indiana volunteers, 1861-62; brigadier-general in the volunteer service, 1862-64, and brevet major-general, 1864-65. In the civil war he commanded the eastern district of Arkansas, 1863, and the district of Indiana in 1864-65. He was credited by General Grant, in his official report, for the victory at Champion Hills, May 16, 1863, and in 1864 recruited 10.000 unmarried men to serve in the U.S. army. He was U.S. minister to Peru, by appointment of President Lincoln, 1865-70. He was a Republican representative in the 50th congress, 1887-89; governor of Indiana, 1889-91, and Republican candidate for U.S. senator in January, 1891. He died in Indianapolis, Ind., Nov. 23, 1891.
From: Twentieth Century Biographical Dictionary of Notable Americans,
Johnson, Rossiter, editor
A Biography of Isaac Pusey Gray
Isaac Pusey Gray, governor of Indiana, was born in Penn Township, Chester county, Pa., Oct. 18, 1828; son of John and Hannah (Worthington) Gray, and descended on both sides from Quakers who came to America with Penn. His parents removed to Urbana, Ohio, in 1838; to near Dayton, Ohio, shortly afterward, and in 1842 to New Madison, Ohio. He received a common school education; and was clerk in a store in New Madison. He removed to Union City, Ind., Nov. 30, 1855, where he established a dry goods and grain business, selling out in 1861 to accept the colonelcy of the 4th Indiana volunteer cavalry. He resigned his commission on account of ill health. He subsequently organized the 147th Indiana infantry but could not accept the command. At the time of Mergan's raid he commanded the Minute men (state guard). He was a candidate for the Republican nomination for representative in the 40th congress against George W. Julian in 1866, and was defeated by a few votes; was state senator, 1868-72; delegate to the Liberal Republican national convention of 1872; declined the nomination for attorney general of Indiana in 1874; was lieutenant governor of the state, 1877-80, serving till the death of Governor Williams, Nov. 20, 1880, when he became governor, his term expiring Jan. 12, 1881; and candidate for the nomination for governor in 1880, but received four votes less than necessary to a nomination, and was unanimously nominated for lieutenant-governor, suffering defeat with the rest of the ticket. In the Democratic caucus of 1881 he was nominated for U.S. senator and was defeated in the election by Gen. Benjamin Harrison. In 1884 he was elected governor, serving 1885-89. He removed to Indianapolis in 1885, and in 1888 his name was presented before the Democratic national convention for the vice-presidency, and in the national convention of 1892 he was named as an available candidate for the Presidency. President Cleveland appointed him U.S. minister to Mexico in 1893, it being the President's first diplomatic appointment. He visited his home in December, 1894, and on his return was unconscious from the effects of a sudden attack of pneumonia and he died the same day in the American hospital. He was married, Sept. 8, 1850, to Eliza, daughter of Judson Jaqua, a native of Columbia county, N.Y., resident in Yankee Town, Ohio, and their son Pierre was a partner with his father in the law firm of Gray & Gray, Indianapolis, and Bayard settled in Frankfort, Ind. Governor Gray died in the city of Mexico, Feb. 14, 1895.
From: Twentieth Century Biographical Dictionary of Notable Americans,
Johnson, Rossiter, editor
Biography of Jonathan Jennings
Jonathan Jennings, governor of Indiana, was born in Hunterdon county, N.J., about 1776. He migrated to the Northwest Territory, and was the first delegate to congress from Indiana Territory, serving in the 11th-14th congresses, 1809-16. When the territory was admitted as a state in 1816, Mr. Jennings was elected its first governor, serving by re-elections until 1822. He was appointed Indian commissioner by President Monroe in 1818, and was a representative from Indiana in the 17th-21st congresses, 1821-31. He died near Charlestown, Ind., July 26, 1834.
From: Twentieth Century Biographical Dictionary of Notable Americans,
Johnson, Rossiter, editor
Thomas Jefferson Henley Biography
Thomas Jefferson Henley, representative, was born in Indiana in 1807. He attended Indiana State university and became a farmer. He was a representative in the stale legislatsure, 1832-49, being for a time speaker of the house. He studied law, but did not practise, and was a representative from Indiana in the 28th, 29th and 30th congresses, 1843-49, being the first native of the state elected to that office. He made the trip overland to California in 1849 and established himself in the banking business in Sacramento. He was a Pierce presidential elector in 1852 and was selected to carry the electoral vote of California to Washington. He was appointed postmaster of San Francisco in 1852, and in 1853 was made superintendent of Indian affairs, belding the position during the administrations of Presidents Pierce and Buchanan, 1853-61. He established several new reservations, and although his administration of Indian affairs was severely criticised no charges against him were substantiated. During the civil war he took no part in public affairs except to canvass the state for McClellan in 1864. He was again a presidential elector in 1868, voting for Horatio Seymour. He died on his farm in Mendocino county, Cal., in 1875.
From: Twentieth Century Biographical Dictionary of Notable Americans,
Johnson, Rossiter, editor
ADDITIONAL BIOGRAPHIES AVAILABLE:
Ira J. Chase Biography
Graham Newell Fitch Biographical Sketch
A Biography of Edward A. Hannegan
A Biography of William Hendricks
Local History and Genealogy Links:
Tree: tulip tree (yellow poplar)
Nickname: Hoosier State
Motto: Crossroads of America
Area (sq. mi.): 36,291
Admitted: 11 Dec 1816